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Ultrasonic process are the use of wood-Ignition-soaked steps to solve

A company developed a wood fire with a flame retardant ZR-M-301, through the national fixed fire extinguishing systems and fire-resistant components of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Test Center testing, processing by atmospheric pressure treated wood impregnation process, flame retardant impregnated wood drug loading, lack of penetration depth, making the actual production of flame-retardant wood to achieve their flame-retardant effect. Commonly used flame retardant impregnation of wood, vacuum pressure treatment of wood preservative or flame retardant impregnation processing production facilities, Practice has proved that pressure-treated wood flame retardant impregnation effective method, the disadvantage is the large investment , the operation is more complex. In this study, the ZR-M-301 type wood flame retardant impregnation liquid, select representative species of Pinus sylvestris and Ash wood flame retardant impregnation process to explore the introduction of ultrasound technology to simplify of wood impregnated processing equipment and operating The feasibility.
1 Ultrasonic cavitation pressure to improve the feasibility of the the flame retardants Baptist fluence ultrasonic solution will generate ultrasonic cavitation, resulting in tens of thousands of tiny bubbles these bubbles rapidly closed, will produce a micro-shock, so Partly great pressure to produce the effect of the pressurized from the surface of the timber should in theory.
11 domestic and foreign ultrasound in the processing of wood impregnated applied research NairHU of pressure-treated wood, subjected to sonic or ultrasonic role in improving the permeability of the timber. Experimental results with conventional pressing process for comparison. When the continuous pressure treatment 152h, the Douglas fir sonication pharmaceutical uptake than conventional treatment, this approach benefits the western United States ponderosa test material is not ideal. The ultrasonic technology WheatPE impregnated with preservative treated wood. White spruce In NaF saturated solution after the immersion, the increased mobility of the liquid within the timber, when the ultrasonic frequency 47kHz, sodium fluoride ion uptake increased.
China the patented timber retardant ultrasonic treatment process, frequency 50100kHz deal with the beech, the experimental plate veneer thickness 1mm, 2 times dipping 1st of wood soaked in flame-retardant liquid, ultrasonic treatment 115h, 2nd soaked in flame-retardant liquid , sonication 152h.
12 ultrasonic cavitation of 121 ultrasonic cavitation ultrasonic cavitation first place from the weak intensity of the liquid, the liquid appears many cavitation nuclei diameter is generally 10-910-8m. The cavitation nuclei Cause: liquid the thermal fluctuation in the course of the campaign, liquid mixed with gases. In the the sound negative pressure, cavitation nuclei will inflate the formation of cavitation bubbles.
The minimum pressure as the liquid on the cavitation threshold, the liquid to produce cavitation ultrasonic cavitation threshold and the liquid temperature, pressure-containing gas as well as the size of the radius of cavitation nuclei. Cause cavitation threshold factors: fewer liquid containing gas, an increase in the static pressure of the liquid, the viscosity of the liquid, ultrasonic frequency.
122 bubble movement of the bubbles in the role of the sound field of vibration, but shutting off the bubble may or may not occur, when the frequency of the acoustic wave is less than the resonant frequency of the bubble, the bubble radius and increasing the sound pressure tends to be negative, when when the sound pressure is positive pressure, since the inertial effects of vibration on the surface of the bubble, the bubble is still a certain speed expansion, reaching a maximum value Rm begins to shrink, shrink faster and faster in the positive pressure, and quickly closed. When the acoustic frequency exceeds the resonant frequency of the bubble, the bubble complex vibration, but not shutting off the bubbles. The resonant frequency is calculated as: the f0 = 12R03 (P0 2R0), wherein: the liquid surface tension, which was due cm-1; gas bubbles in the isobaric specific heat cp with capacity ratio than the thermal cv; liquid medium Density, gcm-2; R0 as radius of bubbles raw, cm; P0 as the static pressure of the liquid, dynes cm-2.
The timber of a liquid flame retardant properties similar to water, whichever is the surface tension value of 7275 dynes cm-1, = 14, = 1gcm-2, can be obtained when different bubble diameter R0 bubble resonant frequency, see.
The different bubbles original diameter D0 bubble resonant frequency the cavitation bubbles f0/kHz1040100160200400600800100017002000R0/m330803320165855433217123 closed the strength of the shock when the bubble closed timber flame retardants, the resulting shock wave pressure, assuming Rm to the bubble expands reach a maximum began to shrink after the maximum value when the bubble is compressed to R, the pressure of the bubbles at the surface from the center of the bubble 1587R at maximum, closed bubbles generated shock pressure peak: PmaxP044/3RmR3 Obviously, the larger the ratio Rm / R, closed shock generated when the greater the intensity of the bubbles in the closing process, when the bubble is compressed to a minimum radius, the maximum pressure generated according to the above formula estimates the partial pressure of up to 5107Pa actually vary depending on the sound of the maximum bubble radius Rm , amplitude and frequency, when the frequency is low, the air bubbles can expand to a considerable closed, resulting in a stronger shock.
2 test programs, test results and discuss the 21 pilot programs 211 test program design ideas wood sample Scotch Pine and Ash sapwood, sample size 100mm20mm30mm five the number of samples in each group. Choose a different impregnation method, using the ZR-M-301 type wood flame retardants, flame retardant impregnation of the sample depth in accordance with the norms of the trial, the drug rate test.
industrial production, wood flame retardant impregnation pressure is generally 10MPa, dwell time is generally 30180min In this experiment, the pressure impregnation data as a baseline for comparison, the ultrasonic radiation impregnated with pressure impregnation infusion capacity difference. The ultrasonic radiation impregnated select two kinds of working conditions: First, separate ultrasonic radiation impregnated; microwaved wood sample after ultrasonic radiation impregnated, because the pressure impregnation pressure is constant driving force for a period of time, to overcome the microstructure of wood in catheter occlusion tracheids, pits, the Extracts filling or pits the flame retardants flow resistance, ultrasonic cavitation shock pressure is the instantaneous pressure, the microstructure of wood flame retardants impregnated with poor channel , the flow resistance will be large, the use of microwave heating treatment to get through the first timber internal structure of the vapor channel, the ultrasonic radiation impregnated effect is more obvious.
212 test apparatus pressure impregnated container with oxygen bomb calorimeter of the transformation from nitrogen bottle regulator pressure impregnation pressure formed in the oxygen bomb; ultrasonic pressure impregnation experiments using ultrasonic cleaning machine, KQ-50B type, operating frequency of 40khz; microwave heat treatment to improve wood permeability device using domestic microwave oven.
213 ultrasonic test parameters frequency, sound intensity, radiation, time, etc. Ultrasonic frequency: high frequency of the low strength of the shock, the low cavitation threshold value, but the resonance frequency of the bubble diameter. On the whole, the frequency of low frequency cavitation ultrasound can be seen in the literature of a variety of industrial applications, ultrasonic operating frequency generally choose to 2040kHz range. From the application and comprehensive consideration of the economic, select the ultrasonic frequency 40kHz frequency of the ultrasonic radiation immersion test. Ultrasonic sound intensity: the higher the sound intensity ultrasonic cavitation effect is stronger, in general industrial applications, the average level of sound intensity 0305Wcm-2 ultrasonic irradiation time: pressure impregnation method, ultrasonic radiation impregnated for 30 min. Vacuum or higher pressure (02MPa), the intensity of cavitation is significantly decreased, the the ultrasonic radiation dipping test should be operated under atmospheric pressure exposure.
22 test results pressure impregnation, impregnation of ultrasonic radiation, microwave the ultrasonic radiation impregnated species, flame retardants, immersion depth, the rate of drug relationship, see.
Pressure impregnation, the ultrasonic radiation impregnation and microwave (microwave sterilization) ultrasonic radiation treatment impregnation conditions species, flame retardants, immersion depth, drug related species impregnated ability parameters of pressure impregnation 10MPa30min the ultrasonic radiation impregnated 30min after microwave treatment ultrasonic radiation impregnated 30min Manchurian ash vertical immersion depth / mm152 the lateral immersion depth / MM54-section full-soaked drug loading / 10520611167 Pinus sylvestris longitudinal to immerse depth / mm12453-lateral immersion depth / mm2907 drug loading / 431031246: microwave processing parameters: Ash strength 2min , Pinus sylvestris high strength 15min.
23 is discussed the impregnation processing method of the ultrasonic radiation on ash and Mongolica of Species as inappropriate, probably due to timber microstructure catheter tracheid small pit size, coupled with the extraction of the filling or pits occlusion , flame retardant impregnated with poor channel, the ultrasonic radiation test sound intensity and irradiation time flame retardants can not overcome the flow resistance caused by the.
Microwave treatment with the combination of ultrasonic radiation treatment flame retardant impregnation Ash wood specimens after microwave treatment the ultrasonic radiation dipping 30min flame retardant impregnation pressure 10MPa pressure impregnation 30min flame retardants The impregnation quite; Pinus sylvestris wood samples, microwave, ultrasonic radiation impregnated 30min flame retardant impregnation is equivalent to the pressure 10MPa, flame retardant impregnation pressure impregnation of dipping 30min 60.
On the sample cross-section of the pressure impregnation treatment, flame retardants are mostly concentrated in the lateral surface of the wood sample, the sample cross-sectional central portion of flame retardant content is relatively small. Considering the angle of the flame-retardant effect from the wood, in the amount of drug loading is very basic premise, the flame retardant in the flame retardant timber cross-section should be evenly distributed. To compare the distribution of the flame retardants, the pressure impregnating the sample specimen and microwave processing the ultrasonic radiation impregnated sample 1/2 in the longitudinal direction of the cut wood wire ignition test with a lighter singled out using a double-edged blade, can be obvious, after microwave treatment the ultrasonic radiation impregnated specimen flame retardants more evenly distributed.
3 Conclusions
1) ash and pine timber in the sample, microwave and ultrasonic radiation impregnated with a combination of ways to enhance the flame retardant impregnation is feasible. For Manchurian ash, basically equivalent to the level of flame retardants dip fluence 10MPa pressure impregnation conditions.
2) a single processing method using ultrasonic radiation impregnated ash and pine species in inappropriate.
3) wood the microwave processing production line of domestic enterprises can produce, the the ultrasonic radiation dipping the bottom of the device is a plurality of ultrasonic transducer parallel dip tanks can be designed to produce.
Rate with the strengthening of light, temperature increases and increased to peak around noon, in the afternoon with light intensity and lower temperatures reduce, it showed a single peak curve. Evergreen plant transpiration rate peak and daily mean values ​​of the coral tree> Pittosporum> Osmanthus> Euonymus, not the level of tissue water and plant species, but is more consistent with the free water level of the order of plant tissue, indicating that the free water content is higher, faster water loss, transpiration rate is also higher.
Although the four plants transpiration rate change single peak curve, but the net photosynthetic rate of the four kinds of evergreen plants bimodal curve may be with the noon temperature is too high, the temperature is too high, photosynthesis enzyme decreased activity, resulting in lower photosynthetic rate. The peak of the net photosynthetic rate of the four plants and the daily average Pittosporum highest, followed by the coral tree, Euonymus lowest total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a content of photosynthetic pigments, and four plant's response to light , Pittosporum low light compensation point and light saturation point, indicating that the Pittosporum can adapt to low light, but also to adapt to the higher light, the photosynthetic ability.
The regulatory role of the plants on the environment, both by the plant physiological properties of the plant canopy, leaf morphology and internal factors, but also by the influence of external light in the atmosphere, temperature, wind, etc.. 4 evergreen crown temperature and atmospheric, Pittosporum greatest difference Euonymus japonicus almost no difference, mainly related to the morphology of the crown, Pittosporum dense foliage canopy surface area, the light is not easy to be directed on to the crown, so the temperature is lower than atmospheric; Euonymus japonicus sparse foliage, susceptible to external environmental influence, therefore, almost no difference in the atmospheric humidity and CO2 content of the four species canopy periphery showed a significant difference with atmospheric humidity and CO2 content, close to the level of the size of the humidity and CO2 concentration and plant transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rates, the high humidity of the periphery of the canopy, net photosynthetic rate, oxygen released, the relative content of CO2. Vacuum ability Pittosporum leaves and smooth smooth, not easy to absorb dust, the Vacuum poor, coral leaves into a V-shaped vacuum capability.

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