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ultrasonic sensor working principle

Ultrasonic sensor uses sound waves to media on the object to be detected for non-contact and wear-free detection
Ultrasonic sensors

  Ultrasonic sensors
. Ultrasonic sensors of the transparent or colored objects, metal or non-metallic objects, a solid, liquid, powdery material could be detected. The detection performance is almost free from any environmental conditions, including dust and wet environment.
Detection mode
Ultrasonic sensors are direct reflection of the detection mode. In front of the sensor to be detected sound waves emitted by the transmitter back to the sensor part of the receiver, so that the sensor detects the measured object.
There are some uses ultrasonic sensors on the radio detection mode. Set-beam ultrasonic sensor consists of a transmitter and a receiver, between the two continued to maintain "listen." Of the receiver and transmitter to be detected between the receiver will block the emitted sound waves, which sensor generates a switching signal.
Detection range
Ultrasonic sensor detection range depends on the wavelength and frequency of their use. The longer the wavelength,
Ultrasonic sensors

  Ultrasonic sensors
The smaller the frequency, the greater the distance detection, such as a compact millimeter wavelength sensor detects a wavelength range of 300 ~ 500mm sensing range than 5mm up to 8m. Some sensors have a narrow angle of 6 º acoustic emission, and thus more suitable for accurate detection of relatively small objects. Other acoustic emission angle of 12 º to 15 º sensor can detect objects with a large inclination. In addition, we have an external probe type ultrasonic sensors, the corresponding conventional electronic circuit located inside sensor housing. This structure is more suitable for detecting installation where space is limited.
Almost all ultrasonic sensors can switch the output on the near point and far point or range adjustment. The setting range of the object can be detected, but no change of state of the trigger output. Some sensors with different adjustment parameters, such as the sensor response time, the echo loss of performance, and the sensor device is connected to the pump direction of the work when using the set regulation.
Wavelength and other factors will affect the accuracy of the ultrasonic sensor, the most important factor is the temperature
Ultrasonic sensors

  Ultrasonic sensors
Changes in acoustic velocity, and therefore many of the ultrasonic sensor with temperature compensation characteristic. This feature enables analog output type ultrasonic sensors in a wide range of temperatures get up to 0.6mm repeatability.
Output function
All series of ultrasonic sensors are digital output-type products. Some products have two switching outputs (such as minimum and maximum level control). Most product family offers analog current or voltage output analog products.
Noise suppression
Metal percussion, such as the roar of noise does not affect the ultrasonic sensor parameter assignment, this is mainly due to the frequency range of the preferred and patented noise suppression circuitry.
Synchronization function
Ultrasonic sensor synchronization feature can prevent interference. Them through the sync cable into the respective
Ultrasonic sensors

  Ultrasonic sensors
OK simple connection to achieve synchronization. They also emit sound pulses, the same work as a single sensor, but also has expanded detection angle.
Alternate work
Long scanning ultrasonic sensors
In an alternating manner between each ultrasonic sensor is independent, does not affect each other. In an alternating manner to the sensors, the more the lower the switching frequency of the response.
Testing conditions
Ultrasonic sensors are particularly suitable for use in "air" this media work. This sensor can also work in other gas medium, but requires adjustment of the sensitivity.
Direct reflection ultrasonic sensors can not reliably detect the ultrasonic transducer in the preceding part of the object. Thus, the ultrasonic transducer and the region between the start of the detection range is called blind spot. Sensors in this region must remain blocked.
Temperature and humidity
Air temperature and humidity will affect the travel time of sound waves. Air temperature increase of 20 º C, detection
Ultrasonic sensors

  Ultrasonic sensors
Increase the distance up to 3.5%. In a relatively dry air conditions, the moisture will result in increased velocity by up to 2%.
Air pressure
Changes in the atmosphere under normal conditions ± 5% (choose a fixed reference point) will cause changes in the detection range ± 0.6%. In most cases, the sensor 5Bar under pressure with no problems.
The change will affect the flow velocity. However, from the highest to 10m / s air velocity impact is negligible. Generating an air swirl in the more common conditions, such as the hot metal, it is recommended not to use an ultrasonic sensor to detect, because of the distorted echo of the sound is very difficult to calculate.
Detection of standards
Using a square sound reflecting plate for a nominal switching distance sn calibration.
Thickness of 1mm
Vertical: the sound beam perpendicular to the axis.
Protection class
Shell can prevent solid particles and water.
IP65: completely dust; waterproof pillar intrusion.
IP67: completely dust; submerged in 1m deep under constant temperature and stand for 30 minutes, can effectively protect.
IP69K: Based on EN60529 compliance DIN40050-9
Pump function
Two-position control can be implemented, for example, a liquid level control system, pumped pump function. When a measured object away from the sensor to reach the far point of the detection range, the output operation. When the measured object approaches the sensor detection range is set to reach a near point, the output of the opposite action.

An ultrasonic sensors can detect the status of the container. The ultrasonic sensor is mounted in a plastic jar or plastic pellets melt chamber at the top, when the sound waves to the interior of the container, the container can be analyzed from the state, such as full, empty or half full and so on.
Second, the ultrasonic sensor can be used to detect transparent objects, liquids, any table rough, smooth, light, dense materials and irregular objects. But not for outdoor, hot environment or pressure tank and foam objects.
Third, the ultrasonic sensor can be used in food processing, plastic packaging testing to achieve closed loop control system. Cope with the new technology such as the washing machine in wet ring, noisy environment, very dramatic changes in environmental temperature probes. [2]
Fourth, the ultrasonic sensor can be used to detect the liquid level, detecting transparent objects and materials, tension control and measuring distances, mainly for the packaging, bottle, material handling equipment testing coal transportation, plastics processing and automotive industries. Ultrasonic sensors can be used for process monitoring in order to improve product quality, defect detection, to determine whether, and other aspects.

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